General Education: Literature – Fiction

General Education: Literature – Fiction

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Introduction to Fiction

FICTION

Fiction is a prose imaginative composition which may or may not be based on history or fact.

 

The different types of fiction are the following:

Short story– a relatively brief prose fictional composition based in a single main incident which is designed to produce a single dominant impression.

Novel- a prose fictional work of considerable length that deals with a series of complications involving characters in a particular setting.

Drama– a composition in prose or verse designed for stage performance through mine and dialogue.

Allegory– a symbolic fictional account conveying meaning/s beyond the literal

 

Element of Fiction

Plot

The plot is a series of events knit together following the principle of cause and effect. It is also deemed to be an arrangement of incidents, the narrative structure, the organization of a narrative, and the logical sequence of actions. A plot can be arranged and organized in two ways, the first one is through Chronology-which means that the events are arranged according to time and space, and the second one is through Climax-which means that the events are organized according to order of suspense.

There are also two types of plot, the first one is called organic, which means the story sprouted from just one conflict; and the second one is episodic, which means there are two or more sources of conflicts.

 

Conflict

Conflict is considered as the soul of the plot, and it is the tension between opposing forces in the story. It can be external, which means that conflict is from outside forces; or internal which means the conflict resides the main character.

Here are the types of conflicts:

  • Physical-man vs. nature
  • Social- man vs. man
  • Psychological- man vs. self
  • Cosmic- man vs. God

 

Character

Characters in the story are the moral agents of actions. They are the invented personages in fiction.

There are two types of characters namely major and minor. Under major characters, we have the protagonist, who is the central character where the story revolves; and the antagonist, who prevents the protagonist in solving the conflict. Under minor characters we have foil, who has the opposite traits of the main protagonist; the confidant, who serves as the friend of the protagonist; and the background characters, who are not closely related with the protagonist.

We also have two kinds of character. The first one is round, which means the character was able to undergo change, while the second one is called flat, which means there was no change in the outlook and action of character.

 

Setting

The setting serves as the background of the story, may it be physical, mental, or spiritual. It serves as the backdrop and sets the mood of the characters. There are three elements of setting. The first one is time, which sets the duration of the events; next is place, which talks about  the locally; and the third one is atmosphere, which is the emotion or the mood.

 

Theme

Theme is considered as the central message of the story. It is the universal truth expressed in the text.

 

Point of View

This pertains to the vantage point where the story is narrated. Below are the different types;

 

FIRST person- a principal character in the story is the one narrating it.

SECOND person (unlimited)– an indirect disclosure of the narrating self for characterization and analysis

THIRD person-(limited) also known as the central intelligence point of view; the author choose a character from whose consciousness the entire story is told

CAMERA EYE– presents the dialogues, and the incidents of a narrative like a mechanical recording device.

REVOLVING-characterized by a narrative shift from one point of view to another

COMPOSITE point of view-gives a comprehensive view of the events and incidents in the story through the different angles adapted by several narrating characters

 

Figurative Language

  1. Synecdoche-an association of some important part with the whole it represents.

Example: the face who launched a thousands ships

  1. Simile an indirect association

Example: she like a flower

  1. Personification-given human attributes to an inanimate object (animal, idea, etc.)

Example: the sun is looking down on me.

  1. Oxymoron a self-contrasting statement

Example: Loud silence

  1. Metonymy– an association wherein the name of something is substituted by something that represents it.

Example: Toothpaste is sometimes called Colgate

  1. Metaphor– a direct comparison

Example: you are the sunshine of my life

  1. Irony- the contrast between what was expected and what actually happened

Example: No smoking sign during a cigarette break

  1. Hyperbole– an exaggeration

Example: Cry me a river

  1. Euphenism– Creating a positive connotation out of something negative.

Example: Loved child (illegitimate child)

  1. Ellipsis- omission of words in a sentence

Example: She walked away and so the world turns…

  1. Asyndeton– Not putting any connectors (conjunctions or prepositions)

Example: No retreat, no surrender

 

  1. Apostrophe- A direct address to an abstract things or a person who passed away

Example: Love, please come and take me.

 

WORD LITERATURES

 

WORKS AUTHORS
The Epic of Gilamesh LEQI-UNNINNI, SCRIBE (700BCE)
LliadOdyssey HOMER, (800 BCE)
The Analects CONFUCIUS (551-479 BCE)
The OresteiaAgamemnom AESCHYLUS (496-406 BCE)
Theban Plays:Oedipus Rex

Oedipus at Colonus

Antigone

SOPHOCLES (496-406 BCE)
AlcestisMedea

Hippolytus

The Trojan Women

Electra

EURIPIDES 9484-406 (BCE)
The Histories HERODOTUS (484-425 BCE)
The History of the Pelipennesian War THUCYDIDES (470-400 BCE)
The Art of War SUN-TZU (450-380 BCE)
LysistrataThe Clouds

The Birds

ARUSTOPHANES (448-388 BCE)
The Republic PLATO (428-348 BCE)
EthicsPolitics

Poetics

ARISTOTLE ( 384-322 BCE)
The Book of Mencius MENCIUS (400-320 BCE)
The Ramayana VALMIKI (300 BCE)
The Mahabharata VYASA (200BCE)
The Bhagavad Gita ANONYMOUS (200BCE)
Records of the Grand Historian SSU-MA CHE’IEN (145-86BCE)
Of the Nature of Things LUCRETUS 1(100-50 BCE)
The Aeneid VIRGIL (70-19 BCE)
Mediations AURELIUS, MARCUS (121-180)
The Confessions SAINT AGUSTINE (354-430)
The Cloud MessengerSakuntala/Shakuntala KALIDASA (400)
The Koran MUHAMMAD (650)
The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriach HUI-NENG (638-713)
Shah Nameh FIRDAUS (940-1020)
The Pillow Book SEI SHONAGON (965-1035)
The Tale of Genji ( First Novel in the world) MURSAKI, LADY SHIKIBU (976-1015)
The Rubaiyet KHAYAM, OMAR (1048)
The Divine Comedy ALIGHIERI, DANTE (12655-1321)
The Romance of the Three Kingdoms KUAN-CHUNG, LUO (1330-1400)
The Canterbury Tales CHAUCER, GEOFFREY (1342-1400)
1001 Nights/Arabian nights ANONYMOUS (1500)
The Prince MACHIAVELLI, NICOLO (1469-1527)
Gargantua and Pantagruel RABELAIS, FRNCOIS (1483-1553)
Journey to the West WU CHE’ENG-EN (1500-1582)
Essays-Apology for Raymond Sebond MONTAIGNE, MICHEI (1533-1592)
Don Quixote SAAVEDRA. MIGUEL DE CERVANTES (1547-1616)
Romeo and JulietMuch Ado About Nothing

Twelfth Knight

Merchant of Venice

SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM (1564-1616)
DevotionsSermons

First and Second Anniversaries

DONNE, JOHN (1573-1631)
Dialogue Concerning The Two Chief World Systems GALILEI, GALILEO (1574-1642)
Leviathan HOBBES, THOMAS (1588-1
Discourse on Method DESCARTES, RENE (1596-1650)
Paradise LostLycidas

Areopagitica

MILTON, JOHN (1608-1674)
The School for WivesRartuffe

The Would-Be Gentleman

MOLIERE  (1622-1673)
Thoughts PASCAL, BLAISE (1623-1662)
Pilgrims BUNYAN, JOHN (1628-1688)
Second Treatise of Government LOCKE, JOHN (1632-1704)
The Narrow Road to the Deep North BASHO, MATSU (1644-1694)
Robinson  Crusoe DEFOE, DANIEL (1660-17310
Gulliver’s Travel SWIFT, JONATHAN (1667-1745)
Candid VOLTAIRE (1694-17178)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding HUME,DAVID (1711-1776)
Tom Jones FIELDING, HENRY (1707-1754)
ConfessionsThe Social Contact ROUSSEAU, JEAN JACQUES (1712-1778)
Tristram Shandy STERNE, LAURENCE (1713-1768)
The Life of Samuel Johnson BOSWELL, JAMES (1740-1795)
Basic Documents in American History JEFFERSON, THOMAS
Faust WOLFGANG VON GOETHE, JOHANN
A Poison Tree BLAKE, WILLIAM (1757-1827)
The Prelude WORDSWORTH, WILLIAM (1770-1850)
The Ancient MarinerChristabel

Kublai Khan

COLEERIDE, SAMUEL TAYLOR (1772-1834)
Pride and PrejudiceEmma AUSTEN, JANE (1775-1817)
The Read and the Black STENDHAL (1783-1842)
Pere GoriotEugenie

Cousin Bette

DE BALZAC, HONORE (1799-1850)
Self Reliance EMERSON, RALPH WALDO (1803-1882)
The Scarlet Letter HAWTHORNE,NATHANIEL (1804-1864)
Democracy in America DE TOCQUEVILLE, ALEXIS (1805-1859)
On LibertyThe Subjection of Women MILL.JOHN STUART (1806-1873)
The Voyage of the BeagleThe Origin of the Species DARWIN, CHARLES (1809-1859)
Dead Souls GOGOL, NIKOLAI (1809-1882)
The Cask of AmontilladoAnnabel Lee POE, EDGAR ALLAN (1809-1849)
Vanity Fair THACKERY, WILLIAM MAKEPEACE (1811-1863)
Pickwick PapersThe Tale of Cities

A Christmas Carol

David Copperfield

Great Expectations

DICKENS, CHARLES (1812-1870)
The Warden TROLLOPE, ANTHONY (1815-1882)
Jane Eyre BRONTE, CHARLOTTE (1816-1855)
Wuthering Heights BRONTE, EMILLY (1818-1848)
WaldenCivil Disobedience THROREAU, HENRY DAVID (1817-1862)
Fathers and Sons TURGENEY, IVAN (1818-1883)
The Communist Manifesto MARX, KARL (1818-1883)
Moby Dick MELVILLE, HERMAN (1819-1891)
The Mill on the FlossMiddlemarch

Silas Marner

ELIOT, GEORGE (1819-1880)
Leaves of Grass WHITMAN, WALT (1819-1892)
Madame Bovary FLAUBERT, GUSTAVE (1821-1880)
Crime and PunishmentBrothers Karamazov DOSTOYEVSKY, FYDOR (1821-1880)
War and PeaceAnnakarenina TOLSTOY, ELO (1828-1910)
The Soul Selects Her SocietyA Dimple in the Tomb DICKENSON, EMILY (1830-1886)
Huckleberry FinnTom Sawyer TWAIN, MARK (1835-1910)
The Mayor of Casterbridge HARDY, THOMAS (1840-1928)
The Interpretation of Dreams FRUED, SIGMUND (1856-1939)
Uncle VanyaThree Sisters

The Cheery Orchard

CHEKOV, ANTON (1860-1904)
The Age of InnocenceThe House of Mirth WHARTON, EDITH (1862-1937)
The Road Not TakenStopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening FROST, ROBERT (1874-1963)
A Passage of India FORSTER, E.M (1879-1970)
Ulysses JOYCE, JAMES (1882-1941)
Mrs. DallowayTo the Lighthouse

Orlando

WOOF, VIRGINIA ( 1882-1941)
Sons and LoversLady Chatterley’s Lover

The Fox

LAWRENCE, DFAVID HERBERT (1885-1930)
A long Day’s Journey into the NightMourning Becomes Electra O’NEIL, EUGENE (1888-1953)
Waste Land ELIOT,T.S (1888-1965)
Brave New World HUXLEY, ALDOUS ( 1894-1963)
The Sound and the FuryA Rose for Emily FAULKNER, WILLIAM (1897-1962)
Old Man and the Sea HEMINGWAY, ERNEST (1899-1962)
1984Animal Farm ORWELL, GEORGE (1903-1950)
The English Teacher NARAYAN, R.K
Waiting for Godot BECKETT, SAMUEL (1906-1989)
One Hundred Love in the Time of Cholera MARQUEZ, GABRIEL GARCIA (1928-PRESENT)
Things Fall ApartNo longer At Ease ACHEBE, CHINUA (1930-PRESENT)
SulaThe Beloved

Jazz

Song of Solomom

MORRISSON (1931-PRESENT

 

FILIPINO AUTHORS and their WORKS

 

WORKS AUTHORS
Magnificence and other stories ALFON, ESTRELLA
The Knifed HorizonA Stun of Jewels ANGELES, CARLOS
How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife and Other Stories ARGUILLA, MANUEL
Sunflower Poems AYALA, TITA LACAMBRA
The ArchipelagoTelex Moon

Sunlight on Broken Stones

BAUTISTA, CIRILO
What is an Educated Filipino BENITEZ, FRNCISCO
Dead StarsStepping Stories

Half a Life

BENITEZ, FRNACISO
The Living and the DeadA Wind Over the Earth

Distance to Andromeda

BRILLANTES, GREGORIO
America is in the Heart ( Autobiographical)The Laughter of My Father

The Voice of Bataan

The Power of the People

BULOSAN, CARLOS
People in the WarThe Visitation of the Gods

The Butcher, The Baker, and the Candlestick Maker

CORDERO-FERNANDO, GILDA
The Wedding Dance DAGUIO, AMADOR
No Certain WeatherBarter in Panay

Daedalus and OtherPoems

Masks and Signatures

DEMETILLO, RICARDO
The  Devil FlowerHouse of Images ENRIQUEZ, EGMIDIO ALVAREZ DEMETILLO, RICARDO
Palabas: Essays on Philippine Threater FERNANDEZ, DOREEN
Poems in Spanish and Ilocano FLORENTINO, LEONA
Now and at the Hour FORD, AIDA RIVERA
Fire Poem/Rain PoemPopular Delusions

Planet waves

GAMALINDA, ERIC
Poems GLORIA, ANGELA MANALANG
The Winds of AprilA Season of Grace

Seven Hills Away

Children of the Ash-Covered Loam

The Bamboo Dancers

GONZALES N.V.M
Children of the City GUERRERO, AMADIS MA
DogeatersGangster of Love HAGEDOREN, JESSICA
EncantoBlood Sacrifice IGLORIA, MARIA LUISA
Juanita CrusAng Dalaga sa Tindahan JALANDONI, MAGDALENA
ErmitaPoon

My Brother, My Executioner

JOSE, FRANCISO SIONIL
The Woman Who Had Two NavelsSummer Soistice

May Day Eve

JOAQUIN, NICK
Small KeyDesire

Sunset

LATORENA, PAZ
Literature and Society LOPEZ, SALVADOR
ReevaluationAbot-Tanaw LUMBERA, BIENVENIDO
My humble OpinionWomen Enough NAKPIL, CARMEN GUERRERO
The VirginThe Hand of the Enemy POLOTAN-TUVERA-KERIMA
MythologyThe Creatures of Philippine Lower RAMOS. MAXIMO
ZitaThe Wound and the Scar ROTOR, ARTURO
The VolcanoThe Man Who ( Thought He) Looked Like Robert Taylor

The Day the Dancers Came

Scent of Apples

SANTOS, BIENVENIDO
Lidia SOTTO, JUSN CRISOSTOMO
His Native CoastThe Tracks of Babylon

Blade of Fem

TIEMPO, EDITH
Valediction sa HillcrestClaudia and Her Mother TINO, ROLANDO
Man SongsFootnote to Youth VILLA, JOSE GARCIA
Like the Molave ZULUETA DA COSTA, RAFAEL
Twisted ZAFRA, JESSICA

 

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS

 

EXPRESSION MEANING
Come hell of high water I am by your side come hell or high water.This means the speaker would not leave the one he/she is speaking with no matter what happens
Put your finger in the pie To finish the task at a much earlier time, everyone must put his/her finger in the pie.It means they must do their share in a particular task.
Be in the limelight The soprano did her best to be in the limelight.It means to be at the center of everybody’s attention.
Flogging a dead horse Rallies and mass demonstrations against the RH law are like flogging a dead horse.It means that the work being done is futile.
Bring home the bacon The speech coach cheered his contestants. He said “Bring the bacon!”It means that he wants the team to win.
Between the devil and the deep blue sea This situation is hopeless!. It is like the devil and the deep blue sea.This situation is at its worst and the resolution is seen to be unpleasant.
In your face The debater was criticized straight in her face.To state something in an aggressive manner.
Under the weather She did not attend her class. She said that she feels under the weather.The person is sick.
Back to square one Her efforts are wasted since she is back to square one.The person has to start again from the beginning.
Hold your horses The commandant reminds his team hold their horses until the right time comes.Be patient.
Tickled your horses The news tickled her pink.Made one every happy.
When pigs fly There is no chance of us being husband and wife, unless when pigs fly.Impossible to happen.
At the pink of health She looks beautiful and well rested. I assume she is at the pink of healthGood health.

 

Phrasal Verbs
Add up Add
Bring about Cause to happen
Bring up Raise
Call off Cancel
Carry on Continue
Back up Support
Bring off Accomplish
Carry out Complete
Count in Include
Cut down Reduce
Fill out Complete (printed form)
Fill up Complete ( container0
Hang up Suspend
Hold up Rob
Pay off To complete payment
Touch up Repair
Turn down Refuse
Throw over Reject
Save up Accumulate
Put off Postpone
Down play Diminish
Figure out Understand
Breakdown Analyze
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