28 Nov Principles and Methods in Teaching T.L.E
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The factors which determine method to be used
Aim of education
Nature of the child
Education of the teachers
Nature of the subject matter
Any method to be effective must have the following characteristics
Method must utilize the theory of self activity
It should utilize the laws of learning ( Law of Readiness, Exercise and effect)
It must aid the learner in defining his own purpose
It should be based on the accepted well- integrative education theory and practice which is designed to unify the work of teaching and learning
Method must stimulate the thinking and learning powers of the students
It should be suited to the progress of the students in skills , ability, habits, knowledge, ideas and attitudes
Techniques of teaching
Technique is a specific way of doing a particular task in the process of teacher guidance of students learning activities (Williamson Lyle)
Technique refer to the quality of the activities executed by the teacher in presenting the subject- matter to the students
It is essentially technical skill of the teacher in accomplishing the task of teaching
Teaching aids are physical means employed by the teacher for the purpose of emphasizing, clarifying or vitalizing instruction
Kinds of Instructional Aid
General Instructional Supplies
Printed or written materials (books, penodicals, chart, clippings etc.)
Visual aid (Radio presentation, plays and dramatization)
Concrete materials (Exhibits, museums collection, measuring equipment tools, laboratory apparatus)
Characteristics of Good Visual Aid
Large enough to be visible to everybody in the group
(Avoid decoration and prevent distraction)
Terminology should be limited within the comprehension of the learner
Important part should be accelerated by the stand constant usage in the classroom
It should be mounted in such way as to make it portable which will permit its use more than one location
METHODS OF TEACHING
Actually showing what is to be learned
It is often used in connection with practice lecture, discussion and experiments
It is done by actual performance using the real object and models (Webster)
Suggestions for the preparation of a demonstration
– Determine the specific purpose to be carried in
– Study the materials to be taught
– Prepare a complete lesson plan
– Check on the availability of equipment
– Rehearse your demo
– Outline the steps on the blackboard
– Be sure everyone can hear and
– Prepare written materials
Discussion means there is difference of opinion temporarily at least concerning a situation. Involves an interchange of questions and idea among the participant.
Types of discussion on how to start group discussion
– Class discussion
– Panel discussion
– Opposite panel
– Group discussion (buzz session, phillip session)
Techniques on how to start group discussion
– Matching partner
– Incomplete attendance
– Emotionally toned pictures
– Challenging questions
– Reaction to specific word
This method utilize the principle of learning to do by doing, thus providing for the development of manipulative skills and managerial skills and acquisition of motor techniques
Three types of laboratory techniques
– Productive type
– Experimental type (procedure of experimental/scientific method)
– Observation type
Steps in the laboratory method
This method utilize “telling” as a means of instructions
Type of Lecture
– Pure lecture- demonstrate by the teacher
– Lecture discussion- interspersed with discussion by the group
– Illustrated lecture- accompanied by some forms of visual materials presented to be seen and looked over
Advantages and Uses of Lecture Method
– Economy of time
– Preparation and presentation
– Clarity and enrichment
– Speech habits
Dangers and limitation of the lecture method
– The teacher may talk too much
– Poorly planned and poorly done oral presentation waste time
– Lecture invites passivity instead of active participation
– Ineffective lectures fails to hold interest and attention of students and is up to increase difficulties
– The teachers likely to reduce the lecture to a dictation exercises
– The lecture is likely to be poorly adapted to the apperception ability of the students
It is called by many names such problem solving, reflective thinking and scientific method
It means guiding students into life experiences in which they will encounter real problem to solve and then guiding them into the solution of these problem and to be solved intelligently
Steps in problem solving
– State the problem
– Collect data
– Organize data
– Analyze the data
– Draw conclusion
– Test the conclusion
The method is a significant practical unit of a problematic nature planned and carried to completion by the student in a natural manner and solving the use of physical materials to complete the unit of experience
Steps in Project Method
Question and Answer Method
One of the most important phases of the teaching process is the art of questioning
Aim or purpose of question and answer method of teaching
– Stimulate interest and bring about a new organization of the idea
– To encourage independent thinking and analysis of the material covered by the question
– To keep student find new implication in the discussion to secure information
Points to be considered in framing and asking questions
– Be brief and definite so that only one meaning is possible
– Use language which is within the comprehension of the student
– Use correct grammar
– Vary the type of questions, not always who
– Present a problem which the students have some possibilities of solving
– Relate unfamiliar elements to familiar elements
– Ask question that will stimulate thinking not simply call for a “yes” or a “no” or a one word answer
– Address the entire class before one student is called for a reply
– Repeat question only when necessary
– Never conduct in a routine order of calling students in an alphabetical order
– Teacher should consider individual differences and question should be within the capabilities of the students called upon to answer
– Don’t ask pumping questions
– Don’t grade students while answering questions
Characteristics of good questions
– They should be interrogative in form not declarative
– They should bring out the subject matter in order of dependancy or logical relationship, if such exist
– They should not be the end on themselves, but should carry the thought forward
– They should call up associated facts
COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH
This is an approach where students work as a team in learning academic content and skills to address social and human relation goals and objectives
Instructional goals of cooperative learning
– Aims to improve students performance task and allows peer tutoring
– Acceptance of diversity
– Social skill development
Basic principles of cooperative learning:
– Face-to-face heterogeneous learning teams
– Positive interdependence
– Individual accountability
– Explicit training in interpersonal skills
Desirable principle of cooperative learning group
– Initiator – evaluator
– Clarifier – tension reliever
– Contributor – checker
– Listener – gopher
– Summarizer – others
Cooperative Learning Methods
Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD) by Slavin, 1996
-this is a heterogeneous team using devices to master the academic materials and then student help each other learn the materials through tutoring, quizzing one another and/ or carrying on team discussion
Team-Games Tournaments (TGT)- SLAVIN
-This teaching strategy uses the same teams instructional format and worksheet as STAD but students play academic games in weekly tournament instead of quizzes
Jigsaw (Eliot Arouson)
-This is a strategy wherein each member of a team works on a specific material but with the member of the other team working with the same materials, after individual work on their respective material they will return to their home team and teach other member what they have learned.
-This is a strategy where students working in a heterogenous group complete a single group product, share ideas and help each other with answer, and ask for help from each other before asking the teacher and the teacher praises and rewards the group on the basis of group performance.
This is an approach that aims to develop or enhance the individuals different facets of intelligence and to equally recognize and value them.
The approach is based on the theory that intelligence is not unitary but multidimensional and in the real world an individuals activities involve a blend of different intelligences
Multiple intelligences are:
– Logical mathematical intelligence
-Bodily- kinesthetic intelligence
EVALUATION IN HOME ECONOMICS
The team evaluation is used to identify the process of determining the strength or value of work done. It is a way of measuring the result of educational activities (Morgan)
Evaluation or appraisal in education is a process that when properly used and understood result in teacher student growth. It is the ability to size up progress and chart new direction, the ability to see errors and weaknesses and set up steps for their improvement (Synder)
Evaluation is the process of gathering and weighing evidences which will reveal changes in the behavior of students (Magneson)
Points to consider when evaluating
– Evaluation is a joint concern of teacher, students and parents
– Evaluation program is a goal set up
– Evaluation means more than testing. It gives opportunity for planning, making judgement, reasoning, and decision making,
– Evaluation involves selecting and/ or preparing and using as well as deciding values of the finished job or product.
– Evaluation need to be continuous throughout a unit problem or process as well as the end of the learning unit or problem
– Evaluation measures the process as well as the producer
Functions of evaluation
– Evaluation furnishes evidence of change in student
– Serve as incentive to learning
– It brings to light misconception and difficulties
– Measure the degree of mastery
– Furnish a basis for guidance
– Determine needed curriculum change
– Determine needed modification in instructional method
Different devices for Evaluation
- Oral Test – as measuring device its limitation is manifold. It supplies too restriction a sampling of what students know. This has to be supplemented by written or performance test.
- Essay Test – Limitation of this kind of test are difficult to score.
In scoring essay test, the identity of student be known if possible, when papers are being scored. Answer to question be scored in a way that it should be carefully compared with the key in each instance.
Teacher-made Test – this include true-false, completion, multiple choice , matching type which are develop in an attempt to overcome the shortcoming of the traditional essay type.
Suggestion for constructing test items:
- Check items against objectives of the lesson.
- Eliminate factors which tend to confuse students or slow down their rate of answering like:
- See to it that students has a copy of the test
- Phrase directions and items in such a way that they can be understood.
- Underline crucial words in test items and instruction
- Formulate clear and brief instructions.
- Use technique which will discourage guessing.
- Arrange random order true and false items and correct and incorrect response and in multiple choice items.
- Avoid having correct responses longer than the other.
Observe the rule of rhetoric, grammar, and punctuation.
Avoid items which have no answer upon which all experts will agree.
Avoid specific determiner which are usually associated with true or false statements.
This has been devised to indicate the relative ability of students in the particular jobs. To be satisfactory done meet these criteria:
– It must not demand expensive supplies
– It must not require too long time
– It must cover as many as possible of fundamental skills in a particular field
– The score must be scorable in objectives means.
Types of Evaluation
Formative evaluation- is camed out in time when a program is being developed; produces information that is feed back during the development of the program in order to improve it its aim is refinement or improvement.
Summative evaluation- is conducted after a program is developed. Its purpose is to determine the worth of the program. Its aims are to determine impact or outcomes.
External evaluation- is conducted by representative of a part of a system not managed by the element being evaluated.
Internal evaluation- is conducted by a component of the system level being evaluated.
Input evaluation- include need assessment
Process evaluation- is concerned with what goes on in a program, It includes determining whether a certain procedure or step of the lesson has been fully complied
Product evaluation- determining whether the output presented quality in alliance with the criteria for evaluation.
Assessment- means measuring the process of learners and identifies issues to work on to make program successful.
Knowledge and performance test
Feed backing and feed forwarding
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
Assessment- is the act of gathering information on daily basis in order to understand an individual student is learning needs.
Assessment data insists teachers in planning and adapting further instruction Teachers can enhance student’s understanding of their process and needs by involving them in self-assessment, where they gather data about their own learning strategies and understanding. Participation that will set accurate and realistic personal learning goals and also to discuss data regarding on student’s abilities and needs
Evaluation- is the culminating act of interpreting the information gathered during daily assessment for making decisions or judgments about students learning and progress.
It often occurs at the end of the activity, a unit or reporting period, and provides information to students, teachers, parents and others about the students’ progress to date.
Assessment and Evaluation procedures should correspond with the curriculum objectives and instructional practices. In addition, they should be sensitive to the developmental characteristics of early adolescents.
To guide and improve instruction and student learning
Guided Principles for continuous assessment and evaluation
- They are essential components of teaching-learning process.
- It is most effective to use a variety of assessment and evaluation techniques.
- It is important to communicate assessment and evaluation plans and criteria in advance.
- It should be fair and equitable, demonstrating sensitivity to any situations.
- It should help students by providing positive feedbacks and encouragement.
- It should be well-communicated to students and parents regularly and in meaningful ways.
- The use of a variety of techniques and tools and the collection of students’ assessment development information as learners.
Types of Assessment and Evaluation
- Diagnostic Assessment- Provides teachers with instructional starting points.
- Learning abilities and needs
- Motivational and interests levels
- Formative Assessment- focuses on the processes and products of learning.
- Continuous and planned
- Students’ progress toward the curriculum objectives
- Feedback to students
- Instructional decisions and adaptations
The Evaluation Process
Student Assessment and Evaluation
Middle Level students are at various cognitive, emotional, social and physical stages of development: therefore assessment and evaluation techniques must be sensitive to this range of abilities and address individual progress. It is unrealistic to expect students who are at various stages of development to perform at the same level of competence and ability.
Assessment and Evaluation Strategies and Sample Templates
- Observation- occur on a continuous basis during students early learning activities and experiences
- Anecdotal Notes- comments concerning various aspects of student learning (e.g. concept development reading abilities, group interaction or summarizing skills)
- Checklists- are usually completed while students are engaged in activities or processes are list of specific criteria that pertain to aspects of learning experience.
- Used to record certain knowledge, skill, thinking and research processes abilities and attitudes with respect to identified activity.
- Rating Scales- record the extent on which certain criteria have been achieved by the student, the extent to which certain characteristics are present in the student’s work.
- Checklists convert into rating scales
- Designed as number lines or holistic scales or rubrics.
- Clear and concise
- Rubrics- a form of holistic rating scale describe expectations at each level of the rating scale and are used to determine student progress in comparison to the stated expectation.
- Expressed numerically depending upon the objectives
- Develop critical thinking skills in areas such as self-reflection and self assessment.
- Portfolios- are collection of relevant work that reflects students’ individual efforts, development and progress over a designated period of time.
- Provide students growth overtime, including abilities, knowledge, skills processes and attitudes.
- setting goals for further personal learning, self-assessment and reflection.
- Interviews/conferences- are productive means of assessing individual achievements and needs.
- Discussions – discovers students’ perception of their own learning experiences.
- Conferences- focus on specific skills, process, activity or product or they can be in general nature.
- Projects and presentation- depends upon the objectives and the purpose of the activity.
- Teacher will set criteria for such aspects of learning skill development, group interaction, attitude, concept attainment and development and application of knowledge and skills.
- Quizzes, Tests and Examination – are often used in assessing students knowledge of content However, they may used to asses higher level thinking skills and learning process.
- Oral or written
- Question is constructed to allow students to demonstrate that they understand the process
- Formats of test items is based on the objective being assessed